Spinal cord trauma is damage to the spinal cord. It may result from direct injury to the cord itself or indirectly from damage to surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels.
The gradual deterioration of the disc between the vertebrae is referred to as Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) or Spondylosis. Degenerative Disc Disease is very common affecting 40-50% of people over the age of 40 and becomes increasingly common as we age. It is a kind of wear and tear disease similar to osteoarthritis. Although it can occur at any spinal level, it is most common in the lumbar spine (low back). DDD can cause the discs to flatten losing their normal height.
Rarely does DDD require surgery. There are several non-surgical treatments including anti-inflammatory medication, physical therapy and exercise programs. Surgery is only considered when the patient’s symptoms are debilitating; interfere with activities of daily living, and non-surgical treatment has failed after a reasonable period of time, usually at least six months.
A prolapsed disc is a condition when the inner, softer part of the disc bulges out through a weakness in the outer part of the disc. The symptoms include – back pain, ache in the arm or leg and pinpricks felt in feet, toes and hands.
As a rule, surgery may be considered if the symptoms have not settled after about six weeks or so. At Kulwanti Hospitals, the spine surgeons may opt for :
Keyhole surgery – it is typically performed when there is a prolapsed disc in the lumbar (lower back) region which is pressing against a nerve.
Disc replacement – An artificial disc is a device that is implanted into the spine to imitate the functions of a normal disc (carry load and allow motion).
Spondylolisthesis is a Greek term meaning slipping of the spine. It is the abnormal forward movement of one vertebra over the vertebra below. There are various types of spondylolisthesis.
Type 1 – Congenital Spondylolisthesis
An individual is born with the abnormality of the posterior bony arch of the spine, which causes the slippage
Type 2 – Isthmic Spondylolisthesis
Isthmic spondylolisthesis is caused by a defect in a part of the bone called the pars interarticularis. The pars bone connects the upper joint of one vertebra to the lower joint.
Type 3 – Degenerative Spondylolisthesis
Degenerative spondylolisthesis is a forward slippage secondary to arthritis of the spine.
In degenerative spondylolisthesis, surgery is indicated if slippage progressively worsens or if back pain does not respond to nonsurgical treatment and begins to interfere with activities of daily living. In the congenital and high dysplastic group, surgery is done at early stages to prevent neurological complications.
The spine has normal curves if seen from the sides and is seen as a straight column from the front. But in certain conditions the spine shows curvatures from the front and it is called scoliosis. The abnormal forward bending of the spine is called kyphosis.
The patients with scoliosis are pain free and do not seek treatment until the deformity is noticed. Unfortunately, at that point it may be too late to treat the disease. The size of the curve is measured in degrees on an X-ray. The progression of scoliosis is monitored by periodic x-ray studies.
Surgical Management of Scoliosis
Surgical treatment of scoliosis is employed if the curvature at detection is of greater magnitude. The aim of surgical correction is to achieve a well-balanced spine in which the patient’s head, shoulders and trunk are centred over the pelvis.
A spinal tumor or a growth of any kind – whether cancerous or not, can impinge on nerves, leading to pain, neurological problems and sometimes paralysis. The symptoms include loss of sensation or muscle weakness, especially in the legs, difficulty in walking, sometimes leading to falls and loss of bowel or bladder function.
Team That Cares Request Information
Doctor Name Refer A Patient
Dr. Sanjeev Suri, M.S., McH (Neuro)
Dr. I.N. Bajpai, M.S., McH (Neuro)
Dr. R.K. Singh, M.S., McH